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Social media platforms have completely changed how we now receive information, communicate with one another, and express our ideas in the digital age. However, the unrestrained expansion of social media has unintentionally led to a critical issue: the decline in tolerance. The ethos of open-mindedness and fair discourse is being damaged as online groups become more polarised and echo chambers magnify biased perspectives. Social media was intended to serve as a forum for democratic discourse, enabling the coexistence of opposing viewpoints and promoting greater understanding. However, the dissemination of false information, confirmation bias, and the creation of echo chambers have clouded this promise. Low barriers to content creation have made it easier for fake news to spread, blurring the distinction between reality and fiction. Users frequently become locked in self-reinforcing bubbles of like-minded people as a result of their inherent prejudices and the algorithms that pander to their tastes. Dissenting voices are drowned out in these echo chambers, which causes reality to be skewed and tolerance to deteriorate. Confirmation bias, which is the propensity to look for information that confirms current opinions while discounting contrary data, is a major factor in the spread of intolerance on social media. Users unintentionally create echo chambers where their opinions are reinforced and opposing viewpoints are discounted when they design their digital environments. Online communities become even more divided as a result of this self-perpetuating feedback loop, which reinforces prejudices and fosters a “us vs. them” mentality. Users enclose themselves in their ideological fortresses and grow more averse to opposing viewpoints instead of conversing in a productive way. The blending of social identity with online contacts is another important aspect contributing to the downward spiral of intolerance on social media. People frequently develop close relationships with others who share their social, political, or cultural identities and are like-minded. This sense of community develops loyalty, which frequently takes the form of protective activity in the face of perceived outside threats. A breakdown in civil discourse and the rise of intolerance can result from disagreements or criticisms about someone’s identification. Notably, tolerance levels vary between people and between ideological groups. Liberals and conservatives alike may refer to opposing opinions as “fake news,” although the degree of ideological separation at which this occurs varies. According to studies, some political groups are less tolerant than others. This can be attributed to a variety of things, including emotional responses, the use of inflammatory language, or the strength of underlying motivations for tolerance. Understanding the dynamics of intolerance and its impact on social media platforms requires an understanding of these varied tolerance levels.

On social media, retaliation has come to be seen as a concerning game-theoretic tactic, frequently motivated by feelings of identity threat. Users may use a low-tolerance approach to take revenge on opposing organizations. A once-tolerant society gradually slips into a state of decreasing acceptance and open hatred towards opposing viewpoints as a result of this retaliatory activity. Retaliation exacerbates polarisation and further erodes the basis of a tolerant society rather than closing gaps and fostering understanding. Recognizing the contextual aspect of tolerance is crucial for addressing the epidemic of intolerance on social media. The degree of tolerance can vary depending on the circumstance and is influenced by things like conversations that are abstract versus those that are concrete, exposure to opposing viewpoints, or the ferocity of democratic activism. Promoting contextual awareness can assist people in being more aware of their own prejudices and navigating online environments with more empathy and openness. Multiple parties must work together to address the intolerance downhill spiral.  It is the duty of social media companies to create algorithms that value diverse material and fight echo chamber effects. By limiting hate speech and creating community norms that encourage tolerance, they must also develop a culture of polite dialogue. Confirmation bias can be lessened by media literacy programmes that teach consumers how to think critically and distinguish fact from fiction. To combat the polarisation fueled by social media, educational institutions can play a role in fostering empathy, critical thinking, and respectful engagement. Social media’s toleration dilemma demands immediate attention and action. The underpinnings of civil discourse are crumbling as online communities become more divisive. To develop successful mitigation techniques, it is crucial to comprehend the causes of intolerance, such as confirmation bias, echo chambers, differential tolerance, and retaliatory behaviour. We may work to establish a more accepting and inclusive digital ecosystem by encouraging empathy, critical thinking, and contextual knowledge.

The responsibility for fostering a culture that appreciates diversity, respects opposing viewpoints, and promotes the norms of open-mindedness and polite dialogue rests on people, social media platforms, and society at large. Then and only then will we be able to stop the cycle of intolerance and realize social media’s true power as a catalyst for good.